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Applicable Laws

Means all applicable laws, rules, orders, ordinances, regulations, statutes, requirements, codes and executive orders of any governmental or judicial authorities, each as amended, extended or re-enacted from time-to-time.

Data Protection Legislation

Refers to the applicable laws, rules and regulations relating to the processing of personal data, including, where applicable, PIPL.

Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer

Refers to the international legal practice operating through Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP, a limited liability partnership incorporated in England and associated entities and undertakings incorporated or formed in the USA (Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer US LLP, a limited liability partnership incorporated in New York), in Hong Kong (Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, a partnership registered in Hong Kong), in Japan (Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer Law Office and Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer Foreign Law Office), in Singapore (Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer Singapore Pte. Limited), in Italy (Studio Legale associato a Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer) in Germany and Spain (Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer Rechtsanwälte Steuerberater PartG mbB), in Austria (Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB) and by means of a number of other associated entities and undertakings (each a “Freshfields Entity”).

Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP

Refers to Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP, a limited liability partnership registered in England and Wales with registered number OC334789, and registered office at 100 Bishopsgate, London EC2P 2SR.


Means a matter in respect of which we agree to provide our advice or services to a client.

Personal Information

Refers to a variety of information related to an identified or identifiable natural person that is recorded electronically or otherwise, excluding anonymized information.

Personal Information Processor

Refers to an organization or individual that independently determines processing purposes and processing methods in personal information processing activities.




Means the Personal Information Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China, effective 1 November 2021.

Sensitive Personal Information

Refers to personal information that, once leaked or used illegally, may easily infringe on the personal dignity of natural persons or endanger personal or property safety, including biometrics, religious beliefs, specific identities, medical health, financial accounts, whereabouts tracking and other data, as well as the personal information of minors under the age of 14.